Assessing psychological resilience : Development and psychometric properties of the English and Dutch version of the Resilience Evaluation Scale (RES)

Background: Psychological resilience is a distinct factor that affects mental health outcomes after adversities. This study describes the development, validity and measurement invariance (MI) of a Dutch and English scale on psychological resilience, called the Resilience Evaluation Scale (RES).


Methods: Separate online surveys with the Dutch and English version of the RES and hypothesized relatedmeasures were distributed in a Dutch- and English-speaking group, both drawn from the general population.


Results: Exploratory factor analysis, using data from 522 respondents (n = 296 Dutch, n = 226 English), yielded a two-factor structure for the final 9-item RES. The factors reflected the hypothesized underlying constructs of psychological resilience: self-confidence and self-efficacy. The items and constructs of psychological resilience as measured by the RES were interpreted and conceptualized in the same way by both language groups, with the exception of one item. The RES showed good convergent validity and good internal consistency.


Conclusions: The current study establishes sound psychometric properties of a new, brief, and freely available scale on psychological resilience. This study contributes to the identification and measurement of psychological resilience after adversities. The final 9-item RES may serve as a valuable instrument in research and in clinical practice.

Christianne A. I. van der Meer, Hans te Brake, Niels van der Aa, Pasha Dashtgard, Anne Bakker and Miranda Olff | 2018
In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640 | 9 | May | 169