Causal attributions and psychiatric symptoms in survivors of the Herald of Free Enterprise disaster.


The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between causal attributions and psychiatric symptoms in those who survived the capsizing of the Herald of Free Enterprise ferry, two years following the disaster. Internal and controllable attributions for disaster-related experience are strongly related to poorer psychological outcome.

The shared experience of catastrophe: an expanded classification of the disaster community.


Based on observational and interview data following a major air crash, a classification of individuals affected by catastrophe is proposed in which degree of involvement is used to characterize the dynamic nature of the disaster community. The model encompasses individual and group activities, roles and relationships, and the shared meaning of the traumatic event. Implications for the identification of neglected participants and for preventive community intervention are offered.