What First Responders Teach Us About Cumulative Stress

A firefighter/EMS individual I recently saw reported that he had been on the job since he was 18 years old. He recognized that over time and relatively immediately that his cumulative stress impaired his relationships and ability to relate to others. He was having a challenging time maintaining a long-term intimate relationship because he would waver between being irritable and aggressive and becoming cut off and emotionally distant. He described being one of the first on the scene of two car accidents which I was familiar with where children were sadly killed.

Legacies of the Third Reich: Concentration Camps and Out-group Intolerance

We explore the long-term political consequences of the Third Reich and show that current political intolerance, xenophobia, and voting for radical right-wing parties are associated with proximity to former Nazi concentration camps in Germany. This relationship is not explained by contemporary attitudes, the location of the camps, geographic sorting, the economic impact of the camps, or their current use. We argue that cognitive dissonance led those more directly exposed to Nazi institutions to conform with the belief system of the regime.

Longitudinal epigenome-wide association studies of three male military cohorts reveal multiple CpG sites associated with post-traumatic stress disorder

Background: Epigenetic mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, blood-derived DNA methylation data (HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) collected prior to and following combat exposure in three cohorts of male military members were analyzed to assess whether DNA methylation profiles are associated with the development of PTSD. A total of 123 PTSD cases and 143 traumaexposed controls were included in the analyses.

Comparison of six proposed diagnostic criteria sets for disturbed grief

Increased recognition that grief may turn into a disorder led to the inclusion of Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) in DSM-5 and Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) in ICD-11. Four additional criteria sets for disturbed grief have been proposed in recent years: Prigerson et al. proposed criteria for PGD (“PGD-2009″), Maercker et al. presented an ICD-11 beta draft version of PGD (“PGD-BD”), Shear et al. put forth criteria for complicated grief (“CG”), and, recently, criteria for PGD in DSM-5-TR have been proposed.

The prevalence of prolonged grief disorder in bereaved individuals following unnatural losses: Systematic review and meta regression analysis

Background: Previous research has indicated that one out of ten naturally bereaved individuals develops prolonged grief disorder (PGD). Less is known about the prevalence of PGD following unnatural deaths, such as accidents, disasters, suicides, or homicides. The aim of this study was to compute the pooled prevalence of PGD and to determine possible causes of its varied estimates.

Cannabis use disorder among veterans: Comorbidity and mental health treatment utilization

Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is the most common illicit substance use disorder in the United States and is related to a range of functional impairment. CUD is associated with comorbid mental health disorders and other substance use disorders, compounding impairment from either type of disorder alone. U.S. military veterans also experience CUD at high rates; however, less is known about comorbidity and its impact on service utilization among veterans. Better understanding of comorbidity in this group is important, given that the Veterans Health Administration is the largest U.S.

U.S. Military Veterans’ Health and Well-Being in the First Year After Service

Introduction

This study examined the health and well-being of U.S. veterans during the first year after military service and tested several hypotheses regarding differences in veterans’ well-being over time, across life domains, and based on sex, military rank, and deployment history.

Methods

The impact of trauma exposure and moral injury on UK military veterans : a qualitative study

Background: Exposure to a potentially morally injurious event (PMIE) has been found to be associated with a range of adverse mental health outcomes. However, how the psychological consequences following PMIEs compare to those encountered after a traumatic, but not a PMIE, remain poorly understood. Objective: The aim was to qualitatively explore UK military veterans’ responses to experiences of trauma and moral injury and the impact of such events on psychological wellbeing.

“Hidden” and Diverse Long-Term Impacts of Exposure to War and Violence

Nowadays, the PTSD diagnosis is often a prerequisite for the survivor’s access to specialized treatment services and for obtaining legal recognition or financial compensation when exposed to violence. However, some survivors do not meet all necessary criteria for the PTSD diagnosis, particularly not in the long term. Therefore, they run the risk of being misdiagnosed, inadequately helped or undertreated, and may remain legally unrecognized and unprotected.

Severity profiles of posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and somatization symptoms in treatment seeking traumatized refugees

Background: Western countries are facing many challenges hosting refugees from several regions in the world. Many of them are severely traumatized and suffer from a variety of mental health symptoms, which complicates the identification and treatment of refugees at risk. This study examined subgroups based on a broad range of psychopathology, and several predictors, including trauma characteristics and gender.

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