Validation of the Indonesian resilience evaluation scale in an undergraduate student population

Background: Psychological resilience is an important factor in coping with Potentially Traumatic Events (PTEs) and might mitigate the development of trauma-related disorders. Due to the high risk of natural disasters, criminal activity, and transportation accidents among the Indonesian population, it is critical to assess psychological resilience as a pro-tective factor. This study aimed to validate the Resilience Evaluation Scale (RES) in Indonesian undergraduate students.


Methods: We recruited 327 students (78% female, the mean age is 19.61 (SD=1.24)) between March and June 2020 using convenience sampling, 256 (78.28%) of whom completed the RES twice with an interval of 2 weeks for test-retest reliability purposes. Parallel Analysis and Exploratory Factor Analysis were performed to examine the construct validity of the RES. The internal consistency and the test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach Alpha, Pearson Correlations, and Interclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). Convergent and divergent validity were examined using Pearson Correlations.


Results: EFA analysis yielded a two-factor structure for the final eight-item Indonesian version of RES, which reflected two underlying constructs of resilience: self-confidence and self-efficacy. The Indonesian version of RES demon-strated good internal consistency (α =0.74–0.82) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.68–0.78;  ICC = 0.67–0.78). The result showed that the RES total and subscale scores positively correlated with all criterion variables (resilience, self-efficacy, self-esteem, level of global functioning, and adaptive coping strategy; r=0.27–0.73). RES total and subscale scores negatively correlated with opposite constructs (PTSD, depression, social/work impairment, and maladaptive coping strategy; r= - 0.27–  -0.46).


Conclusions: The current study showed that the Indonesian RES is a valid and reliable measurement of psychologi-cal resilience in Indonesian undergraduate students. The final 8-item Indonesian RES, a freely available resilience instrument, is recommended for future studies and public mental health initiatives in the Indonesian population.

Indira Primasari, Chris M. Hoeboer, Anne Bakker and Miranda Olff | 2022
In: BMC Public Health ; ISSN: 1471-2458 | 22 | 2410
Assessment, Depressive Symptoms, Indonesians, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD (en), Resilience, Statistical Analysis, Students, Traumatic events, Validity
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