Prolonged grief disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression following traffic accidents among bereaved Balinese family members : Prevalence, latent classes and cultural correlates

Introduction: Qualitative studies have described the rather unique styles of Balinese people to adjust to adversity. No quantitative research assessing psychopathology among bereaved individuals has been performed yet. This study estimated the prevalence of prolonged grief disorder (PGD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among bereaved individuals after traffic deaths in Bali and the relations between subgroups sharing the same symptoms and cultural, socio-demographic characteristics and posttraumatic growth (PTG).

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 301 participants participated in questionnaire-interviews assessing PGD, PTSD, depression, PTG and cultural and sociodemographic characteristics. On average, the time since loss was 16 months. The purpose of the rituals was examined by a thematic qualitative analysis. We performed latent class analyses and subsequently calculated the odds ratios between membership of classes and characteristics with a multivariate 3step analysis.


Results: Prevalence rates of PGD (0%), PTSD (1%) and moderate depression (2%) were low. Most participants followed the bereavement rituals characteristic for Balinese culture. The purpose of these rituals was mainly the expression of caring for the deceased. We found a large resilient class (76%) and two smaller classes, one characterized by elevated PGD symptoms (11%) and one by elevated PTSD symptoms (13%). Loss of close kin was associated with membership of the PTSD class.


Conclusions: Prevalence rates of PGD, PTSD and depression in the Balinese community were remarkably low. Participants appeared to be quite homogeneous in following religious and cultural habits. Aspects of the Balinese culture might protect bereaved individuals for developing mental health issues and could be used for an informed refinement of bereavement rituals in other cultures.

A.A.A.Manik J. Djelantik, Putu Aryani, Paul A. Boelen, Cokorda Bagus Jaya Lesmana, Rolf J. Kleber | 2021
In: Journal of Affective Disorders : ISSN: 0165-0327 | 292 | June | 773-781
Open Access
Accidents, Affected Populations, Asians, Bereavement, Depressive Disorders, Depressive Symptoms, Epidemiology, Mental health, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Prolonged Grief Disorder, Psychotrauma, PTSD (en), Research, Statistical Analysis
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