Protect: Process of Recognition and Orientation of Torture Victims in European Countries to Facilitate Care and Treatment

According to Council Directive 2003/9/EC of January 27th 2003 laying down minimum standards for the reception of asylum seekers, the Member States have to take into account the specific situation of vulnerable persons among other applicants who have been subjected to torture, rape or other serious forms of psychological, physical or sexual violence. This provision shall apply only to applicants recognized as having special needs, after an individual assessment of their situation.

Stress sensitization following a disaster: a prospective study

Background According to the stress sensitization hypothesis, prior exposure to extreme stressors may lead to increased responsiveness to subsequent stressors. It is unclear whether disaster exposure is associated with stress sensitization and, if so, whether this effect is lasting or temporary. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and duration of stress sensitization prospectively following a major disaster.

Gender differences in PTSD symptoms : An exploration of peritraumatic mechanisms

Females are at higher risk than males for developing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) following exposure to trauma, which may stem from gender differences in initial physiological and psychological responses to trauma. The present study aimed to examine a number of peri- and initial posttraumatic reactions to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) to determine the extent to which they contributed to gender differences in PTSS. 356 adult MVA survivors (211 males and 145 females) reported on peritraumatic dissociation, perception of life threat and initial PTSS.

Predicting Pediatric Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Road Traffic Accidents : The Role of Parental Psychopathology

This study examined prospectively the role of parental psychopathology among other predictors in the development and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 57 hospitalized youths aged 7–18 years immediately after a road traffic accident and 1 and 6 months later. Self report questionnaires and semistructured diagnostic interviews were used in all 3 assessments. Neuroendocrine evaluation was performed at the initial assessment.

Photography as a nursing instrument in mental health care : how to use clients' photo stories for recovery

The general aim of this thesis was to examine how nurses can use photography to assist psychiatric patients in making meaning of experiences of illness and to help them in the process of recovery. The study is based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological perspective, focusing on processes of experiencing and meaning making in the life world. Existential issues, e.g. the way how people give meaning to their suffering, play an important role in this process of being-in-the world.

Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

The purpose of the research in this book was to establish the prevalence of delayed PTSD and to examine factors that may explain its occurrence. In addition, we aimed at exploring the likelihood and role of prodromal symptoms (symptoms of PTSD that occur during the interval between traumatic event exposure and the onset of full delayed PTSD) and possible implications of delayed PTSD for mental health service utilization.

Can we facilitate posttraumatic growth in combat veterans?

The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program, currently under development for the U.S. Army, will include a component designed to increase the possibilities for posttraumatic growth in the aftermath of combat. In this article, the author's briefly review studies that provide evidence for this phenomenon in combat veterans, and they suggest elements that such a program might include to facilitate posttraumatic growth. They urge the Army to conduct randomized controlled trials testing the efficacy of the program prior to its implementation.

Ambiguous Expectations and Reduced Confidence: Experience of Somali Refugees Encountering Swedish Health Care

The purpose of this study was to explore Somali refugees' experience of their encounters with Swedish health care. Individual interviews with 20 Somalis were transcribed verbatim and interpreted according to a hermeneutic approach. The findings were expressed in three themes. The first theme, 'expectations when approaching health care', conveys an ambivalence regarding confidence and expectations of treatment and care.

PTSD in the elderly : the interaction between trauma and aging

Background: Because an increasingly large cohort of individuals is approaching their elderly years, there is concern about how the healthcare system will cope with the greater demands placed upon it. One area of concern is the impact of trauma and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aged. Although several reviews have highlighted the lack of knowledge and research on the topic, there still remain gaps in the literature. Nevertheless, some recent behavioral, endocrinological and neuroimaging studies may provide new insights into the discussion.

Late-onset PTSD in unaccompanied refugee minors: Exploring the predictive utility of depression and anxiety symptoms

Following resettlement in Western countries, unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear to what extent PTSD in this group may become manifest at later stages following resettlement and which factors are associated with late onset. We examined data from URM collected 1 (T1) and 2 years (T2) following resettlement for differences between groups with no PTSD, PTSD at T1, and late-onset PTSD (at T2 only) using multinomial regression and path analysis.