Can the legacy of trauma be passed down the generations?

Our children and grandchildren are shaped by the genes they inherit from us, but new research is revealing that experiences of hardship or violence can leave their mark too.

 

‘Built for expansion’: the‘social life’of the WHO’smental health GAP Intervention Guide

The focus of this study is the WHO’s mhGAP-Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG)2.0 (2016), an evidence-based tool and guideline to help detect, diagnose andmanage the most common mental disorders, designed for use by non-specialistsglobally but particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This research is astarting point in tracing the multiple‘doings’of mhGAP-IG–connectingquestions of how it is‘done’and what does it‘do’–to the living histories andwider global mental health assemblages that make the tool possible and shape itsglobal circulation.

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in military veterans, firefighters, and police officers: a randomised, double-blind, dose-response, phase 2 clinical trial

Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in military personnel and first responders, many of whom do not respond to currently available treatments. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for treating chronic PTSD in this population.

The importance of harmonising diagnostic criteria sets for pathological grief

Five diagnostic criteria sets for pathological grief are currently used in research. Studies evaluating their performance indicate that it is not justified to generalise findings regarding prevalence rates and predictive validity across studies using different diagnostic criteria of pathological grief. We provide recommendations to move the bereavement field forward. 

Successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder reverses DNA methylation marks

Epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the detrimental effects of traumatic stress and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether successful treatment of PTSD restores these epigenetic marks. This study investigated longitudinal changes of blood-based genome-wide DNA methylation levels in relation to trauma-focused psychotherapy for PTSD in soldiers that obtained remission (N = 21), non-remitted PTSD patients (N = 23), and trauma-exposed military controls (N = 23).

Overanxious and underslept

Are you feeling anxious? Did you sleep poorly last night? Sleep disruption is a recognized feature of all anxiety disorders. Here, we investigate the basic brain mechanisms underlying the anxiogenic impact of sleep loss. Additionally, we explore whether subtle, societally common reductions in sleep trigger elevated next-day anxiety. Finally, we examine what it is about sleep, physiologically, that provides such an overnight anxiety-reduction benefit.

Cannabinoids for the treatment of mental disorders and symptoms of mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background: Medicinal cannabinoids, including medicinal cannabis and pharmaceutical cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), have been suggested to have a therapeutic role in certain mental disorders. We analysed the available evidence to ascertain the effectiveness and safety of all types of medicinal cannabinoids in treating symptoms of various mental disorders. 

Danger- and non-danger-based stressors and their relations to posttraumatic deprecation or growth in Norwegian veterans deployed to Afghanistan

Objective: This study aimed to explore how exposure to danger-based and non-dangerbased stressors may influence personal changes in veterans (N = 4053) after deployment to Afghanistan.

Patterns and Predictors of Change in Trauma-Focused Treatments for War-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Objective: We evaluated patterns and predictors of change from three efficacy trials of trauma-focused cognitive–behavioral treatments (TF-CBT) among service members (N = 702; mean age = 32.88; 89.4% male; 79.8% non-Hispanic/Latino). Rates of clinically significant change were also compared with other trials. Method: The trials were conducted in the same setting with identical measures. The primary outcome was symptom severity scores on the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview Version (PSS-I; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993).

International meta-analysis of PTSD genome-wide association studies identifies sex- and ancestryspecific genetic risk loci

The risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma is heritable, but robust common variants have yet to be identified. In a multi-ethnic cohort including over 30,000 PTSD cases and 170,000 controls we conduct a genome-wide association study of PTSD. We demonstrate SNP-based heritability estimates of 5–20%, varying by sex. Three genome-wide significant loci are identified, 2 in European and 1 in African-ancestry analyses. Analyses stratified by sex implicate 3 additional loci in men.

Pages