The underlying dimensionality of PTSD in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: where are we going?

There has been a substantial body of literature devoted to answering one question: Which latent model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) best represents PTSD’s underlying dimensionality? This research summary will, therefore, focus on the literature pertaining to PTSD’s latent structure as represented in the fourth (DSM-IV, 1994) to the fifth (DSM-5, 2013) edition of the DSM.

Re-experiencing traumatic events in PTSD: new avenues in research on intrusive memories and flashbacks

Posttraumatic flashbacks, consisting of the intrusive re-experiencing of traumatic experiences in the present, have been more clearly defined for the first time in DSM-5 and have been identified as a unique symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder in the proposed ICD-11 diagnostic criteria. Relatively little research into flashbacks has been conducted, however, and new research efforts are required to understand the cognitive and biological basis of this important symptom.

Trauma and PTSD: setting the research agenda

Up to 80% of people encounter severe adverse events in their lives (De Vries & Olff, 2009). Most people will be resilient or quickly recover from negative symptoms, but a significant proportion will develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) leading to a lifetime prevalence of PTSD in about 7% (De Vries & Olff, 2009; Kessler et al., 2005). These events precipitate not only PTSD but also major depression, anxiety disorders, addiction, physical health problems, and other trauma-related disorders.

The efficacy of recommended treatments for veterans with PTSD : A metaregression analysis

Soldiers and veterans diagnosed with PTSD benefit less from psychotherapy than nonmilitary populations. The current meta-analysis identified treatment predictors for traumatised soldiers and veterans, using data from studies examining guideline recommended

Pharmacological prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

An increasing number of studies have investigated the pharmacological prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder (ASD). This is the first systematic review to examine the effects of pharmacotherapies (eg, β blockers, hydrocortisone, and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors) given within the first month after a traumatic or aversive event to prevent PTSD or ASD compared with no pharmacotherapy or placebo control.

Early intervention for preventing posttraumatic stress disorder: an Internet-based virtual reality treatment

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in approximately 20% of people exposed to a traumatic event, and studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective as a treatment for chronic PTSD. It has also been shown to prevent PTSD when delivered early after a traumatic event. However, studies have shown that uptake of early treatment is generally low, and therefore, the need to provide interventions through other mediums has been identified. The use of technology may overcome barriers to treatment.

Reporting Bias in Clinical Trials Investigating the Efficacy of Second-Generation Antidepressants in the Treatment of Anxiety DisordersA Report of 2 Meta-analyses

Importance Studies have shown that the scientific literature has overestimated the efficacy of antidepressants for depression, but other indications for these drugs have not been considered.

Objective To examine reporting biases in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials on the pharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders and quantify the extent to which these biases inflate estimates of drug efficacy.

Therapeutic adherence and competence scales for Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy for adolescents with PTSD

Background: The assessment of therapeutic adherence and competence is often neglected in psychotherapy research, particularly in children and adolescents; however, both variables are crucial for the interpretation of treatment effects.

Objective: Our aim was to develop, adapt, and pilot two scales to assess therapeutic adherence and competence in a recent innovative program, Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT), for adolescents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childhood abuse.

Posttraumatic stress disorder according to DSM-5 and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria: a comparison in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants

Background: Compared to DSM-IV, the criteria for diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been modified in DSM-5.

Objective: The first aim of this study was to examine how these modifications impact rates of PTSD in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants. The second goal of this study was to investigate whether PTSD symptoms were associated with perpetrator-related acts or victim-related traumatic events.

Analyzing small data sets using Bayesian estimation: the case of posttraumatic stress symptoms following mechanical ventilation in burn survivors

Background: The analysis of small data sets in longitudinal studies can lead to power issues and often suffers from biased parameter values. These issues can be solved by using Bayesian estimation in conjunction with informative prior distributions. By means of a simulation study and an empirical example concerning posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) following mechanical ventilation in burn survivors, we demonstrate the advantages and potential pitfalls of using Bayesian estimation.