Intergenerational consequences of the Holocaust on offspring mental health : a systematic review of associated factors and mechanisms

Exposure to war and violence has major consequences for society at large, detrimental impact on people’s individual lives, and may also have intergenerational consequences. To gain more insight into these intergenerational consequences, research addressing the impact of the Holocaust on offspring is an important source of information. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the mechanisms of intergenerational consequences by summarizing characteristics in Holocaust survivors and their offspring suggested to impact the offspring’s mental health.

No pain, no gain: cross-lagged analyses of posttraumatic growth and anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress and prolonged grief symptoms after loss

Background and objectives: Major negative life-events including bereavement can precipitate perceived positive life-changes, termed posttraumatic growth (PTG). While traditionally considered an adaptive phenomenon, it has been suggested that PTG represents a maladaptive coping response similar to cognitive avoidance. To clarify the function of PTG, it is crucial to establish concurrent and longitudinal associations of PTG with post-event mental health problems. Yet, longitudinal studies on this topic are scarce. The present study fills this gap in knowledge.

Stability and change post-disaster : dynamic relations between individual, interpersonal and community resources and psychosocial functioning

Conservation of Resources (COR) theory defines psychological stress as the result of a threat or actual loss of resources, or lack of resource gain. Given that disasters present a significant risk for resource loss, the aim of this study was to examine the dynamic relationship between the change in different levels of resources and the change in psychosocial functioning.

Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients Exposed to Emotional Neglect and Traumatic Events : Latent Class Analysis

The inclusion of a complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) diagnosis in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases reflects growing evidence that a subgroup of individuals with PTSD also suffer from disturbances in emotion regulation, interpersonal skills, and self-concept, which together are termed “disturbances in self-organization” (DSO). Although CPTSD is assumed to result from exposure to complex traumatic events, emotional neglect may be an important contributor.

Associations between perceived social support, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) : implications for treatment




Perceived social support (PSS) is one of the most important risk factors for the onset and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, however the relationship between PSS and Complex PTSD (CPTSD) is unknown. The evidence-base for CPTSD treatment is currently lacking, though increasingly important given the recent publication of the ICD-11, which now allows for a formal diagnosis of CPTSD.



ISTSS Guidelines Position Paper on Complex PTSD in Children and Adolescents

For the past two decades, there has been substantial debate about whether there are qualitatively different symptom profiles that can develop in children from different types of traumatic events and life circumstances. The term “complex trauma” is often used to describe both the presumed causes and the consequences of exposure to traumatic stressors when the child has experienced other significant adversities and is manifesting more severe clinical presentations.

ISTSS Guidelines Position Paper on Complex PTSD in Adults

For the past two decades, there has been substantial debate about whether there are qualitatively different symptom profiles that can develop from different experiences of traumatic events. It has been proposed that more complex symptom profiles, called “complex PTSD,” can emerge from events that involve multiple, chronic or repeated types of traumas that are of an interpersonal nature and from which escape is difficult or impossible such as childhood abuse, domestic violence, genocide campaigns and being a prisoner of war (Herman, 1992).

Secondary traumatization in first responders : a systematic review

Background: Finding precise definitions of secondary traumatic stress, vicarious traumatization, and compassion fatigue is not easy. While some researchers define these terms differentially, others use them interchangeably. In the present review, we refer to all three phenomena as secondary traumatization.

Objectives: This systematic review aims to provide an overview of prevalence rates of secondary traumatization in first responders and to shed light on corresponding resilience and risk factors.

How do men with severe sexual and physical childhood traumatization experience traumastabilizing group treatment? A qualitative study

Background: Exposure to potentially traumatizing events, defined as events involving actual or threatened death or serious injury, is associated with an elevated risk of developing enduring physical, psychological and social problems. Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disorder that can occur after prolonged and repeated trauma. At least 30% of the sexually abused population is male, but in spite of this fact, treatment research focusing on male victims is virtually non-existent in comparison to research on female victims.

Intensive prolonged exposure therapy for chronic PTSD patients following multiple trauma and multiple treatment attempts


Background: Suboptimal response and high dropout rates leave room for improvement of trauma-focused treatment (TFT) effectiveness in ameliorating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.

Objective: To explore the effectiveness and safety of intensive prolonged exposure (iPE) targeting chronic PTSD patients with a likely diagnosis of ICD-11 Complex PTSD following multiple interpersonal trauma and a history of multiple treatment attempts.