Development and Implementation of Trauma-Informed Programming in Youth Residential Treatment Centers Using the ARC Framework

This project describes application of an evidenced-based, trauma-informed treatment framework, Attachment, Regulation and Competency (ARC), with complexly traumatized youth in residential treatment. The processes of implementing the ARC model into clinical and milieu programming at two residential treatment programs are described. Particular attention is paid to system-level processes and strategies for embedding ARC in a sustainable manner.

Development and preliminary validation of a screen for interpersonal childhood trauma experiences among school-going youth in Durban, South Africa

This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of the Developmental Trauma Inventory (DTI), which is a 36-item, retrospective, self-administered screen for interpersonal childhood trauma experiences developed specifically for the South African context. Preliminary validation of the inventory was conducted using a sample of 720 school-going adolescents attending a high school in the Durban Metropolitan area (South Africa).

Cumulative trauma and symptom complexity in children: A path analysis

Multiple trauma exposures during childhood are associated with a range of psychological symptoms later in life. In this study, we examined whether the total number of different types of trauma experienced by children (cumulative trauma) is associated with the complexity of their subsequent symptomatology, where complexity is defined as the number of different symptom clusters simultaneously elevated into the clinical range.

Concurrent validity of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES-SR) in a non-clinical sample of South African adolescents

The concurrent criterion-related validity of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES-SR) was examined in a cross-sectional study of 719 secondary school students attending a high school in Durban, South Africa. For purposes of analysis, exposure to complex developmental trauma was defined as exposure to either chronic (>1 month) and/or multiple incidents (5+ types) of interpersonal victimisation prior to the age of 18 years.

Complex Trauma Exposure and Symptoms in Urban Traumatized Children: A Preliminary Test of Proposed Criteria for Developmental Trauma Disorder

Recently, a new diagnostic construct, developmental trauma disorder (DTD), was proposed to describe the effects of chronic exposure to violence in combination with disruptions in caregiving systems. This study uses archival data to field test the consensus proposed diagnostic criteria for DTD in a sample of urban children (N-á= 214). Children with complex trauma histories as defined in the proposed DTD Criterion A were much more likely to meet the proposed DTD symptom criteria than children who did not meet the exposure criterion.

Complex Trauma Symptoms in Former Ugandan Child Soldiers

Children exposed to repeated interpersonal trauma often develop symptoms that exceed those documented in criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are better described with the emerging concept of developmental trauma disorder (DTD). This study examines complex trauma symptoms in a sample of 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age 11-17 years, 49% female). Prevalence rates were 33.0% for PTSD, 36.4% for depression, and 78.2% for DTD.

Complex Histories and Complex Presentations: Implementation of a Manually-Guided Group Treatment for Traumatized Adolescents

It is consistently recognized that children and adolescents who have repeatedly experienced or witnessed violence are at significant risk for a multitude of lasting difficulties across many domains of functioning. Adolescents in residential settings often have extensive trauma histories and experience profound behavioral, emotional, and interpersonal difficulties. Unfortunately, there are few structured trauma-informed treatments that have been implemented in residential settings, and even fewer that have been evaluated.

Brazilian version of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress - Revised (SIDES-R): adaptation and validation process

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) contemplates the impact of acute traumatic events, but the literature indicates that this is not true for chronic exposure to stress. In this sense, the category disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS) has been proposed to characterize the behavior and cognitive alterations derived from exposure to continuous early life stress. The Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress - Revised (SIDES-R) was developed to investigate and measure DESNOS.

Association of childhood-trauma-by-primary caregiver and affect dysregulation with borderline personality disorder symptoms in adulthood

Potentially traumatizing experiences by a primary caregiver during childhood (TPC) may lead to affect dysregulation, which is a hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood. Path analyses with bootstrap confidence intervals were used to explore the relationships of TPC and under- and overregulation of affect to BPD symptoms. Almost 63% of a sample of 472 patients diagnosed with either BPD alone, comorbid BPD + somatoform disorder, or other mental disorder, reported childhood TPC.

An evaluation of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD criteria in a sample of adult survivors of childhood institutional abuse

The WHO recently launched the proposal for the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) that also includes two diagnoses related to traumatic stress. In contrast to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), ICD-11 will probably, in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), also define a new diagnosis termed GÇ£complex posttraumatic stress disorderGÇØ (CPTSD).