Empirical Support for the Definition of a Complex Trauma Event in Children and Adolescents

Complex trauma events have been defined as chronic, interpersonal traumas that begin early in life (Cook, Blaustein, Spinazzola, & van der Kolk, 2003). The complex trauma definition has been examined in adults, as indicated by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) field trial, however, this research was lacking in child populations. The symptom presentations of complexly traumatized children were contrasted with those exposed to other, less severe trauma ecologies that met 1 or 2 features of the complex trauma definition.

ESTSS and ISTSS: 'heterozygous twins'

The development of traumatic stress studies during the past decades has much profited from professionals from the United States and from Europe. However, these professional societies, the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) still struggle to find an equal common pathway. This is a personal retrospective view of Berthold Gersons, past president of ESTSS on behalf of the 20th anniversary of ESTSS.

Evidence for proposed ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD: a latent profile analysis

The WHO International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11), has proposed two related diagnoses, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD within the spectrum of trauma and stress-related disorders. To use latent profile analysis (LPA) to determine whether there are classes of individuals that are distinguishable according to the PTSD and complex PTSD symptom profiles and to identify potential differences in the type of stressor and severity of impairment associated with each profile.

Development and Implementation of Trauma-Informed Programming in Youth Residential Treatment Centers Using the ARC Framework

This project describes application of an evidenced-based, trauma-informed treatment framework, Attachment, Regulation and Competency (ARC), with complexly traumatized youth in residential treatment. The processes of implementing the ARC model into clinical and milieu programming at two residential treatment programs are described. Particular attention is paid to system-level processes and strategies for embedding ARC in a sustainable manner.

Development and preliminary validation of a screen for interpersonal childhood trauma experiences among school-going youth in Durban, South Africa

This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of the Developmental Trauma Inventory (DTI), which is a 36-item, retrospective, self-administered screen for interpersonal childhood trauma experiences developed specifically for the South African context. Preliminary validation of the inventory was conducted using a sample of 720 school-going adolescents attending a high school in the Durban Metropolitan area (South Africa).

Cumulative trauma and symptom complexity in children: A path analysis

Multiple trauma exposures during childhood are associated with a range of psychological symptoms later in life. In this study, we examined whether the total number of different types of trauma experienced by children (cumulative trauma) is associated with the complexity of their subsequent symptomatology, where complexity is defined as the number of different symptom clusters simultaneously elevated into the clinical range.

Concurrent validity of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES-SR) in a non-clinical sample of South African adolescents

The concurrent criterion-related validity of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES-SR) was examined in a cross-sectional study of 719 secondary school students attending a high school in Durban, South Africa. For purposes of analysis, exposure to complex developmental trauma was defined as exposure to either chronic (>1 month) and/or multiple incidents (5+ types) of interpersonal victimisation prior to the age of 18 years.

Complex Trauma Exposure and Symptoms in Urban Traumatized Children: A Preliminary Test of Proposed Criteria for Developmental Trauma Disorder

Recently, a new diagnostic construct, developmental trauma disorder (DTD), was proposed to describe the effects of chronic exposure to violence in combination with disruptions in caregiving systems. This study uses archival data to field test the consensus proposed diagnostic criteria for DTD in a sample of urban children (N-á= 214). Children with complex trauma histories as defined in the proposed DTD Criterion A were much more likely to meet the proposed DTD symptom criteria than children who did not meet the exposure criterion.

Complex Trauma Symptoms in Former Ugandan Child Soldiers

Children exposed to repeated interpersonal trauma often develop symptoms that exceed those documented in criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are better described with the emerging concept of developmental trauma disorder (DTD). This study examines complex trauma symptoms in a sample of 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age 11-17 years, 49% female). Prevalence rates were 33.0% for PTSD, 36.4% for depression, and 78.2% for DTD.

Complex Histories and Complex Presentations: Implementation of a Manually-Guided Group Treatment for Traumatized Adolescents

It is consistently recognized that children and adolescents who have repeatedly experienced or witnessed violence are at significant risk for a multitude of lasting difficulties across many domains of functioning. Adolescents in residential settings often have extensive trauma histories and experience profound behavioral, emotional, and interpersonal difficulties. Unfortunately, there are few structured trauma-informed treatments that have been implemented in residential settings, and even fewer that have been evaluated.