Assessing psychological resilience: translation and validation of the Chinese version of the resilience evaluation scale (RES)

The Resilience Evaluation Scale (RES) is a novel and freely available measure of psychological resilience (factored into self-confidence and self-efficacy). To date, psychometric properties were evaluated in Dutch and American samples, but not yet in a Chinese sample.


We aimed to validate the RES in a Chinese sample by examining its factor structure, reliability, and construct validity.


The RES was translated into Chinese following a cross-cultural translation and adaptation procedure. Self-report questionnaires including the RES, exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTE's), the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), and scales for conceptually related constructs of psychological resilience were then administered via an online survey.


In total, 484 Chinese adults (females, 66.9%; age: 27.33 ± 6.86 years) participated. Parallel analysis results suggested a one-factor structure for the Chinese RES. The Chinese RES demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). Construct validity was demonstrated through significant associations with hypothesised related constructs and through a relation with lower levels of PTSD among the PTE-exposed subsample (n = 116) via the mediating role of avoidant coping strategies, i.e. behavioural disengagement and self-blame.


Our results suggest that the RES is a reliable and valid assessment of psychological resilience to use in Chinese, in addition to its Dutch and English versions. The RES could potentially be adopted to measure psychological resilience in cross-cultural contexts.



  • Psychological resilience refers to self-perceived capacities contributing to a favourable outcome after potentially traumatic events.
  • The RES is a brief and freely available assessment of psychological resilience.
  • The Chinese RES shows good reliability and validity.
  • The RES could potentially be used in both Western and Eastern cultural backgrounds.
Yulan Qing, Anne Bakker, Christianne A. I. van der Meer, Hans te Brake & Miranda Olff | 2022
In: European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; ISSN: 2000-8066 | 13 | 2 | oktober | 2133358
Adults, Affected Populations, Exposure, Instruments, Mental health, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Potentially Traumatic Events (PTEs), Psychotrauma, PTSD (en), Resilience, Resilience Scale (RS), Statistical Analysis