Protecting the Homeland from International and Domestic Terrorism Threats : Current Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Root Causes, the Role of Ideology, and Programs for Counter-radicalization and Disengagement

Prison and Community Based Disengagement and De-Radicalization Programs for Extremists Involved in Militant Jihadi Terrorism Ideologies and Activities. STRATCOM Protecting the Homeland from International and Domestic Terrorism Threats: Current Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Root Causes, the Role of Ideology, and Programs for Counter-Radicalization and Disengagement.

Preface (Brigadier General Raymond A. Thomas III)

If there are any key insights resulting from renewed study of the causes and potential solutions for terrorism, it is that there is no simple formula for either the individual or group radicalization phenomenon. While epidemiology and law enforcement provide useful insights on terrorism, they fall short in recognizing the inherent complexity of what is fundamentally a system-of-systems problem. That is, stopping or abating the terrorism phenomenon is not merely an issue of identifying and intercepting the perpetrators of terrorist violence. To be truly effective, strategies and tactics must also be focused far to the left, to address the factors that lead to radicalization in the first place. These efforts should span the perpetrators, the instigators, and the population that both actively and passively supports terrorism (the oft referenced "green layer"). These dynamics occur and inter-relate across many levels. For example, terrorist groups can in some cases gain the support of others by providing public services (e.g., water, medical care), often filling critical gaps where the government is failing to fulfill basic needs. Any strategies to decrease terrorism-related violence need to be tailored to address all the elements of this system-of-systems. Successful counter-radicalization strategies include programs that target entire communities, especially targeting the vulnerable segments -- the unemployed, the disenfranchised, and the youth (especially under 25 year old males). Social connectedness is a powerful factor, even if one is connected to another's struggle. Successful deradicalization/rehabilitation programs generally include the family of the perpetrator, enlisting them to ensure compliance as well as including them in financial compensation, etc. In short, addressing a complex and multi-faceted problem requires a multi-faceted solution.

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Editorial Board: Laurie Fenstermacher (AFRL), Chair ; Larry Kuznar (NSI), Tom Rieger (Gallup) ; Anne Speckhard (Georgetown University Medical Center) Contributing Authors: Janice Adelman, Qamar Al-Huda, Victor Asal, James David Ballard, Maya Beasley, Laila Bokhari, Chris Boucek, Kyle Christensen, Cori Dauber, Adam Dolnik, Bob Duval, Shawn Teresa Flanigan, Ignatius Gous, Rohan Gunaratna, Dipak Gupta, Frank Hairgrove, William Harlow, Bruce Hoffman, Russel L. Honoré, Albert Jongman, Steve Kornguth, Robert Lambert, Tom Lawson, Richard Legault, Anthony Lemieux, Frédéric Lemieux, Brynjar Lia, Jim Lutz, David R. Mandel, David Matsumoto, Clark McCauley, Douglas McLeod, Joel Mort, Sophia Moskalenko, Sam Mullins, Thomas O‘Connor, Reuven Paz, Ami Pedahzur, Arie Perliger, Wayne Porter, Tom Rieger, Jennifer Robison, Marc Sageman, Alan Sandstrom, Yoram Schweitzer, Steve Seitz, Steve Shellman, Anne Speckhard, Raymond A. Thomas III, UK Imams, Jeff Victoroff, Sherifa Zuhur | 2010
379 | Washington, DC: White Papers, Strategic Multi-Layer Assessment and Air Force Research Laboratory.
Crime, Deradicalization, Middle East, Political violence, Radicalization, Religion, Terrorism, Violence