A neglected aspect of refugee relief works : Secondary and vicarious traumatic stress

The literature demonstrates evidence that secondary traumatic stress (STS) and vicarious traumatic stress (VTS) may adversely affect the well-being of refugee relief workers and, thus, the quality of their services. The present review offers an exploration of (a) the theoretical background of STS and VTS, (b) their appearance among refugee relief workers, (c) intervention studies available, (d) common points among intervention studies and guidelines on STS and VTS released by local and international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and (e) the potential problems that can be associated with the insufficiency of standardized intervention programs as assessed in effectiveness studies. This review may help mental health professionals in countries that host large numbers of refugees and asylum seekers, such as Turkey, Lebanon, and Jordan, to design more effective intervention programs targeting STS and VTS.


Gökhan Ebren, Melis Demircioğlu, Okan Cem Çırakoğlu | 2022
In: Journal of Traumatic Stress ; ISSN: 0894-9867 | March
Online ahead of print DOI: 10.1002/jts.22796
Neglect, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Psychotrauma, PTSD (en), Refugees, Secondary trauma, Vicarious Traumatization