Mapping the availability of translated versions of posttraumatic stress disorderscreening questionnaires for adults : A scoping review

Background: The most used questionnaires for PTSD screening in adults were developed in English. Although many of these questionnaires were translated into other languages, the procedures used to translate them and to evaluate their reliability and validity have not been consistently documented. This comprehensive scoping review aimed to compile the currently available translated and evaluated questionnaires used for PTSD screening, and highlight important gaps in the literature.


Objective: This review aimed to map the availability of translated and evaluated screening questionnaires for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for adults.


Methods: All peer-reviewed studies in which a PTSD screening questionnaire for adults was translated, and which reported at least one result of a qualitative and /or quantitative evaluation procedure were included. The literature was searched using Embase, MEDLINE, and APA PsycInfo, citation searches and contributions from study team members. There were no restrictions regarding the target languages of the translations. Data on the translation procedure, the qualitative evaluation, the quantitative evaluation (dimensionality of the questionnaire, reliability, and performance), and open access were extracted.


Results: A total of 866 studies were screened, of which 126 were included. Collectively, 128 translations of 12 different questionnaires were found. Out of these, 105 (83.3%) studies used a forward and backward translation procedure, 120 (95.2%) assessed the reliability of the translated questionnaire, 60 (47.6%) the dimensionality, 49 (38.9%) the performance, and 42 (33.3%) used qualitative evaluation procedures. Thirty-four questionnaires (27.0%) were either freely available or accessible on request.


Conclusions: The analyses conducted and the description of the methods and results varied substantially, making a quality assessment impractical. Translations into languages spoken in middle- or low-income countries were underrepresented. In addition, only a small proportion of all translated questionnaires were available. Given the need for freely accessible translations, an online repository was developed.



  • We mapped the availability of translated PTSD screening questionnaires.
  • The quality of the translation and validation processes is very heterogenous.
  • We created a repository for translated, validated PTSD screening questionnaires.
Joel Hoffman, Ziv Ben-Zion, Adrián Arévalo, Or Duek, Talya Greene, BrianJ. Hall, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Belinda Liddell, Cosima Locher, Naser Morina,Angela Nickerson, Monique C. Pfaltz, Matthis Schick, Ulrich Schnyder, SorayaSeedat, Fatlinda Shatri, Hao Fong Sit, Roland von Känel & Tobias R. Spiller | 2022
In: European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; ISSN: 2000-8066 | 13 | 2 | november | 2143019
Adults, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Psychotrauma, PTSD (en)