Danger- and non-danger-based stressors and their relations to posttraumatic deprecation or growth in Norwegian veterans deployed to Afghanistan

Objective: This study aimed to explore how exposure to danger-based and non-dangerbased stressors may influence personal changes in veterans (N = 4053) after deployment to Afghanistan.

Patterns and Predictors of Change in Trauma-Focused Treatments for War-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Objective: We evaluated patterns and predictors of change from three efficacy trials of trauma-focused cognitive–behavioral treatments (TF-CBT) among service members (N = 702; mean age = 32.88; 89.4% male; 79.8% non-Hispanic/Latino). Rates of clinically significant change were also compared with other trials. Method: The trials were conducted in the same setting with identical measures. The primary outcome was symptom severity scores on the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview Version (PSS-I; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993).

International meta-analysis of PTSD genome-wide association studies identifies sex- and ancestryspecific genetic risk loci

The risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma is heritable, but robust common variants have yet to be identified. In a multi-ethnic cohort including over 30,000 PTSD cases and 170,000 controls we conduct a genome-wide association study of PTSD. We demonstrate SNP-based heritability estimates of 5–20%, varying by sex. Three genome-wide significant loci are identified, 2 in European and 1 in African-ancestry analyses. Analyses stratified by sex implicate 3 additional loci in men.

Patterns of Recovery From Early Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms After a Preventive Intervention With Oxytocin: Hormonal Contraception Use Is a Prognostic Factor

In a previous issue of Biological Psychiatry, we reported on the efficacy of repeated intranasal oxytocin administration early after emergency department admission in preventing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, assessed 1.5, 3, and 6 months posttrauma (1). In a randomized, placebocontrolled trial, we demonstrated beneficial effects in patients with high symptom levels before treatment onset (1,2).

The effectiveness of psychoanalytic / psychodynamic psychotherapy for reducing suicide attempts and self-harm: systematic review and meta-analysis

Background: Preventing suicide and self-harm is a global health priority. Although there is a growing evidence base for the effectiveness of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapies for a range of disorders, to date there has been no systematic review of its effectiveness in reducing suicidal and self-harming behaviours.

Aims: To systematically review randomised controlled trials of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapies for suicidal attempts and self-harm.

Occupational well-being in pediatricians—a survey about work-related posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety

The objective of this study was to study mental health, coping, and support after work-related adverse events among pediatricians. Physicians are frequently exposed to adverse events. It makes them at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety disorders. Besides the personal impact, physicians could pose a threat towards patients, as mental health problems are associated with medical errors. A questionnaire was sent to all members of the Pediatric Association of The Netherlands in October 2016. The questionnaire focused on adverse events, coping, and support.

Associations Among Hair Cortisol Concentrations, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Status, and Amygdala Reactivity to Negative Affective Stimuli in Female Police Officers

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Measurement of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) allows retrospective assessment of HPA axis regulation over prolonged periods of time. Currently, research investigating HCC in PTSD remains sparse. Previous cross-sectional studies have included only civilian populations, although it is known that trauma type moderates associations between PTSD status and HPA axis function.

The Effectiveness of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Systematic Review

Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a potentially debilitating mental health problem. There has been a recent surge of interest regarding the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of PTSD. We therefore sought to systematically review and assess the quality of the clinical evidence of the effectiveness of cannabinoids for the treatment of PTSD.

Comparison of proposed diagnostic criteria for pathological grief using a sample of elderly bereaved spouses in Denmark: Perspectives on future bereavement research

Background: A distinct grief-specific disorder is included in the ICD-11. Lack of clarity remains regarding whether different proposed diagnostic criteria capture similar or different diagnostic entities. Our aim was to examine the specificity of four proposed diagnostic criteria-sets for pathological grief in a population-based sample.

Comparison of DSM-5 criteria for persistent complex bereavement disorder and ICD-11 criteria for prolonged grief disorder in help-seeking bereaved children.

Background: Persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) is a disorder of grief that newly entered DSM-5. Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is a disorder of grief included in ICD-11. No prior studies examined and compared the dimensionality, prevalence, and concurrent validity of both conditions among bereaved children.

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