“I can’t tell whether it’s my hand” : a pilot study of the neurophenomenology of body representation during the rubber hand illusion in trauma-related disorders

Background: Early traumatic experiences are thought to be causal factors in the development of trauma-related dissociative experiences, including depersonalization and derealization. The rubber hand illusion (RHI), a well-known paradigm that measures multi-sensorial integration of a rubber hand into one’s own body representation, has been used to investigate alterations in the experience of body ownership and of body representation. Critically, however, it has never been studied in individuals with trauma-related disorders.

Investigating epigenetic consequences of early-life adversity : some methodological considerations

Stressful and traumatic events occurring during early childhood have been consistently associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. This relationship may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, which are influenced by the early-life environment. Epigenetic patterns can have lifelong effects on gene expression and on the functioning of biological processes relevant to stress reactivity and psychopathology.

PTSD : from neurobiology to pharmacological treatments

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by symptoms of re-experience, avoidance, and hyperarousal that can arise immediately or many years after exposure to a traumatic event and injury. Although extensive research has been done over the past 30 years, the etiology of PTSD remains largely unknown. Several neurobiological systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology and vulnerability for developing PTSD; however, first-line pharmacotherapies are limited.

A review of research on moral injury in combat veterans

The moral injury construct has been proposed to describe the suffering some veterans experience when they engage in acts during combat that violate their beliefs about their own goodness or the goodness of the world. These experiences are labeled transgressive acts to identify them as potentially traumatic experiences distinct from the fear-based traumas associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Biological profiling of plasma neuropeptide Y in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms in two combat cohorts

Military personnel have an increased risk of developing stressrelated mental health problems after deployment to a combat zone [1]. In order to decrease the risk of developing stress-related disorders, biological vulnerability and protective factors should be identified. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide transmitter that is associated with modulation of the stress response. Previous studies reported reduced NPY levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [2].

Repeated intranasal oxytocin administration as early preventive intervention for PTSD : A randomized controlled trial.

As posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in approximately 10% of trauma-exposed individuals, there is an urgent need for effective preventive interventions for PTSD [1]. Oxytocin administration was previously found to beneficially influence neurobiological and socio-emotional factors associated with increased PTSD risk [e.g. 2, 3]. Therefore, we hypothesized that intranasal oxytocin administration early post-trauma in trauma-exposed individuals could prevent PTSD development .

PTSD symptom trajectories in disaster volunteers : The role of self-efficacy, social acknowledgement, and tasks carried out

Millions of volunteers respond after disasters, with a 24% to 46% risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear which symptom trajectories develop and how they differ between core (volunteering before the disaster) and noncore volunteers (joining after the disaster) and which factors predict trajectories. Symptoms of PTSD were assessed at 6-, 12-, and 18-months postearthquake in 449 volunteers in Indonesia.

Intranasal oxytocin enhances neural processing of monetary reward and loss in post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatized controls

Anhedonia is a significant clinical problem in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD patients show reduced motivational approach behavior, which may underlie anhedonic symptoms. Oxytocin administration is known to increase reward sensitivity and approach behavior. We therefore investigated whether oxytocin administration affected neural responses during motivational processing in PTSD patients and trauma-exposed controls.

Intranasal Oxytocin Affects Amygdala Functional Connectivity after Trauma Script-Driven Imagery in Distressed Recently Trauma-Exposed Individuals.

Approximately 10% of trauma-exposed individuals go on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Neural emotion regulation may be etiologically involved in PTSD development. Oxytocin administration early post-trauma may be a promising avenue for PTSD prevention, as intranasal oxytocin has previously been found to affect emotion regulation networks in healthy individuals and psychiatric patients.

Local availability of green and blue space and prevalence of common mental disorders in the Netherlands

Local availability of green and blue space and prevalence of common mental disorders in the Netherlands Sjerp de Vries, Margreet ten Have, Saskia van Dorsselaer, Manja van Wezep, Tia Hermans and Ron de Graaf Background Previous studies revealed a relationship between residential green space availability and health, especially mental health. Studies on blue space are scarcer and results less conclusive.