Prevalence, predictors and associations of complex post-traumatic stress disorder with common mental disorders in refugees and forcibly displaced populations : a systematic review

Background: The inclusion of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) in ICD-11 represents a turning point for the field of traumatic stress, with accumulative evidence of this disorder in refugees and displaced populations.

 

Objective: The objectives of this systematic review are to examine, in refugee and displaced populations: 1) the prevalence of CPTSD; 2) factors contributing to CPTSD; and 3) and associations between CPTSD and other common mental disorders including: PTSD, depression, anxiety and somatisation.

 

Population-attributable risk of adverse childhood experiences for high suicide risk, psychiatric admissions, and recurrent depression

Background: Population-attributable risk (PAR) may help estimate the potential contribution of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to serious clinical presentations of depression, characterized by suicidality, previous psychiatric admissions, and episode recurrence. Objective: To determine the PAR of ACEs for serious clinical presentations of depression (high suicide risk, previous psychiatric admissions, and recurrent depression) in outpatients with ICD-10 clinical depression.

 

Childhood trauma and cognitive biases associated with psychosis : A systematic review and meta-analysis

Childhood trauma is associated with an increased risk of psychosis, but the mechanisms that mediate this relationship are unknown. Exposure to trauma has been hypothesised to lead to cognitive biases that might have causal effects on psychotic symptoms. The literature on whether childhood trauma is associated with psychosis-related cognitive biases has not been comprehensively reviewed.

 

Mechanisms of change in Internet- and mobile-based interventions for PTSD : a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background: While Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) are potential options to increase the access to evidence-based therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), comprehensive knowledge on their working mechanisms is still scarce.

 

Objective: We aimed to evaluate studies investigating the efficacy and mechanisms of change in IMIs for adults with PTSD.

 

Causal role for sleep-dependent reactivation of learning-activated sensory ensembles for fear memory consolidation

Learning-activated engram neurons play a critical role in memory recall. An untested hypothesis is that these same neurons play an instructive role in offline memory consolidation. Here we show that a visually-cued fear memory is consolidated during post-conditioning sleep in mice. We then use TRAP (targeted recombination in active populations) to genetically label or optogenetically manipulate primary visual cortex (V1) neurons responsive to the visual cue.

 

Validation of the new DSM-5-TR criteria for prolonged grief disorder and the PG-13-Revised (PG-13-R) scale

Although the concept of pathological grief dates back at least as far as Freud’s “Mourning and Melancholia”, there has been opposition to its recognition as a distinct mental disorder. Resistance has been overcome by evidence demonstrating that distinctive symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) – an attachment disturbance featuring yearning for the deceased, loss of meaning and identity disruption – can endure, prove distressing and disabling, and require targeted treatment.

COVID-19, Moral Injury and the Bhagvad Gita

During life challenging times like the present COVID-19 pandemic, the health care worker (HCW) is faced with a number of questions of an existential nature. There is a sense of guilt, anguish, helplessness, uncertainty and powerlessness when one is fighting something on such a powerful scale with limited resources and no definite end in sight. There are circumstances when these feelings can overwhelm a person leading to demoralization and potentially a moral injury.

Human Health Risks of Conducted Electrical Weapon Exposure : A Systematic Review

IMPORTANCE Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) are used broadly as a less-lethal force option for police officers. However, there is no clear picture of the possible health risks in humans on the basis of rigorously assessed scientific evidence from the international peer-reviewed literature.

 

OBJECTIVE To synthesize and systematically evaluate the strength of published evidence for an association between exposure to different models of CEWs and adverse acute as well as chronic conditions.
 

 

Prevention and treatment of PTSD : the current evidence base

Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common condition that affects millions of people across the world. Up to date recommendations based on the best available evidence are vital to prevent and treat this debilitating condition. In this issue, we are bringing together a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses that underpinned the development of the 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies Guidelines.

 

Evaluating Crisis Communication : A 30-item Checklist for Assessing Performance during COVID-19 and Other Pandemics

The primary objective of this paper is to propose a conceptual checklist to assess crisis communication efforts during pandemics and in their aftermath. No consolidated checklist exists for assessing the effectiveness of crisis communication at all levels during pandemics.

 

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