Mindfulness-based programmes for mental health promotion in adults in nonclinical settings : A systematic review and metaanalysis of randomised controlled trials

Background

There is an urgent need for mental health promotion in nonclinical settings. Mindfulness–based programmes (MBPs) are being widely implemented to reduce stress, but a comprehensive evidence synthesis is lacking. We reviewed trials to assess whether MBPs promote mental health relative to no intervention or comparator interventions.

Methods and findings

Prevention and treatment of PTSD : the current evidence base

Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common condition that affects millions of people across the world. Up to date recommendations based on the best available evidence are vital to prevent and treat this debilitating condition. In this issue, we are bringing together a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses that underpinned the development of the 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies Guidelines.

 

Effect of Prolonged Exposure, intensified Prolonged Exposure and STAIR+Prolonged Exposure in patients with PTSD related to childhood abuse : a randomized controlled trial

Background: It is unclear whether the evidence-based treatments for PTSD are as effective in patients with CA-PTSD.

 

Objective: We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of three variants of prolonged exposure therapy.

 

Cognitive Therapy for Moral Injury in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Moral injury is the profound psychological distress which can arise following participating in, or witnessing, events which transgress an individual’s morals and include harming, betraying, or failure to help others, or being subjected to such events, e.g. being betrayed by leaders. It has been primarily researched in the military, but it also found in other professionals such as healthcare workers coping with the COVID-19 pandemic and civilians following a wide range of traumas.

 

Culturally Adapted Psychotherapies For Depressed Adults : A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis

Background. There is current debate about the effectiveness and generalizability of evidence-based psychological therapies in treatment of depression for diverse ethno-cultural groups. This has led to increasing interest in culturally adapted psychotherapies (CAPs).

 

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) practitioners’ beliefs about memory.

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a widely used treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. The idea behind EMDR is that lateral eye movements may mitigate the emotional impact of traumatic memories. Given the focus on changing patients’ memories, it is important that EMDR practitioners have detailed knowledge about human memory. We explored beliefs and ideas about memory in samples of EMDR practitioners (Study 1: n = 12; Study 2: n = 41), students (Study 1: n = 35; Study 2: n = 24), and researchers (Study 2: n = 30).

Successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder reverses DNA methylation marks

Epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the detrimental effects of traumatic stress and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether successful treatment of PTSD restores these epigenetic marks. This study investigated longitudinal changes of blood-based genome-wide DNA methylation levels in relation to trauma-focused psychotherapy for PTSD in soldiers that obtained remission (N = 21), non-remitted PTSD patients (N = 23), and trauma-exposed military controls (N = 23).

Psychedelic Treatments for Psychiatric Disorders : A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Patient Experiences in Qualitative Studies

Introduction

Interest in the use of psychedelic substances for the treatment of mental disorders is increasing. Processes that may afect therapeutic change are not yet fully understood. Qualitative research methods are increasingly used to examine patient accounts; however, currently, no systematic review exists that synthesizes these fndings in relation to the use of psychedelics for the treatment of mental disorders.

Objective

Exploring the Maladaptive Cognitions of Moral Injury

Moral injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are two prominent mental health problems that affect military personnel. Moral injury results when the individual is exposed to a situation or event that violates their moral code; however, PTSD results when there is a substantial threat of harm. Moral injury is a relatively new construct within the literature with research starting in the late 2000s. Although distorted cognitions are core components of PTSD symptomatology, there has been no research of cognitions in moral injury.

 

Absence of definitive scientific evidence that benzodiazepines could hinder the efficacy of exposure‐based interventions in adults with anxiety or posttraumatic stress disorders : A systematic review of randomized clinical trials

Background and Objectives

Exposure‐based interventions (EBIs) are the first‐line treatment for anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Although common, the association between EBIs and benzodiazepines is controversial. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature to evaluate if benzodiazepines could undermine the efficacy of EBIs in treating these disorders.

 

Methods

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