The ‘‘one size fits all’’ approach to trauma treatment: should we be satisfied?

There have been significant advances in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in the last two decades. Further improvements in outcomes will be supported by recognition of the heterogeneity of symptoms in trauma populations and the development of treatments that promote the tailoring of interventions according to patient needs. Collaboration with patients regarding preferences about treatment structure, process, and outcomes is critical and will benefit the effectiveness and quality of treatments as well as the speed of their dissemination.

Complex PTSD: research directions for nosology/ assessment, treatment, and public health

Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) in children and adolescents extends beyond the core PTSD symptoms to dysregulation in three psychobiological domains: (1) emotion processing, (2) self-organization (including bodily integrity), and (3) relational functioning.

Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) thought; (3) body; and (4) emotion.

A plea for symptom-based research in psychiatry

Background: The significant proportion of patients suffering from subthreshold diagnoses such as partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) shows that today’s diagnostic entities do not fully meet the reality and needs of clinical practice. Moreover, as stated also in the recently announced concept of research domain criteria (RDoC), the use of today’s traditional diagnostic systems in psychiatric research does not sufficiently promote an integrative understanding of mental disorders across multiple units of analysis from behavior to neurobiology.

The underlying dimensionality of PTSD in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: where are we going?

There has been a substantial body of literature devoted to answering one question: Which latent model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) best represents PTSD’s underlying dimensionality? This research summary will, therefore, focus on the literature pertaining to PTSD’s latent structure as represented in the fourth (DSM-IV, 1994) to the fifth (DSM-5, 2013) edition of the DSM.

Re-experiencing traumatic events in PTSD: new avenues in research on intrusive memories and flashbacks

Posttraumatic flashbacks, consisting of the intrusive re-experiencing of traumatic experiences in the present, have been more clearly defined for the first time in DSM-5 and have been identified as a unique symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder in the proposed ICD-11 diagnostic criteria. Relatively little research into flashbacks has been conducted, however, and new research efforts are required to understand the cognitive and biological basis of this important symptom.

Trauma and PTSD: setting the research agenda

Up to 80% of people encounter severe adverse events in their lives (De Vries & Olff, 2009). Most people will be resilient or quickly recover from negative symptoms, but a significant proportion will develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) leading to a lifetime prevalence of PTSD in about 7% (De Vries & Olff, 2009; Kessler et al., 2005). These events precipitate not only PTSD but also major depression, anxiety disorders, addiction, physical health problems, and other trauma-related disorders.

The efficacy of recommended treatments for veterans with PTSD : A metaregression analysis

Soldiers and veterans diagnosed with PTSD benefit less from psychotherapy than nonmilitary populations. The current meta-analysis identified treatment predictors for traumatised soldiers and veterans, using data from studies examining guideline recommended

Pharmacological prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Summary
Background
An increasing number of studies have investigated the pharmacological prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder (ASD). This is the first systematic review to examine the effects of pharmacotherapies (eg, β blockers, hydrocortisone, and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors) given within the first month after a traumatic or aversive event to prevent PTSD or ASD compared with no pharmacotherapy or placebo control.
Methods

Early intervention for preventing posttraumatic stress disorder: an Internet-based virtual reality treatment

Abstract
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in approximately 20% of people exposed to a traumatic event, and studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective as a treatment for chronic PTSD. It has also been shown to prevent PTSD when delivered early after a traumatic event. However, studies have shown that uptake of early treatment is generally low, and therefore, the need to provide interventions through other mediums has been identified. The use of technology may overcome barriers to treatment.

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