Increased anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus activation in Complex PTSD during encoding of negative words

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with impaired memory performance coupled with functional changes in brain areas involved in declarative memory and emotion regulation. It is not yet clear how symptom severity and comorbidity affect neurocognitive functioning in PTSD. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with an emotional declarative memory task in...

Internalisierung und Externalisierung als Ausprägungen einer gemeinsamen Störungsdimension bei traumatisierten Patienten

In patients with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD, Herman, 1992) as well as in those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) traumata are often found anamnestically. Besides high comorbidity were found between both disorders. Thus it was examined whether internalizing and externalizing subtypes can be distinguished in chronic traumatized patients (N=266) accounting for...

Heterogeneity of defensive responses after exposure to trauma: blunted autonomic reactivity in response to startling sounds

Research on threat responses, particularly among trauma-exposed individuals, has traditionally focused on increased autonomic arousal and reactivity. However, clinical features associated with trauma exposure, such as dissociation (e.g., shutting down or 'spacing out') manifest as the opposite pattern: non-reactivity and blunted arousal. These clinical features suggest that the possibility of...

Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study

BackgroundIn the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and personality disorders (PDs) are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment.ObjectiveIn this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment.MethodIn a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for child-abuse-related complex PTSD, we included 71 patients of whom 38 were ra

Trauma and stress among older adults in prison: Breaking the cycle of silence

Research consistently shows that incarcerated juveniles and adults experience high levels of prior traumatic experiences and stressful life events. Yet there is a gap in the literature addressing incarcerated older adults' life-course experiences of traumatic and stressful life events and their initial and current subjective interpretations of these events. Given that untreated trauma has been linked to decreased health and mental well-being, and recidivism, the current study attempts to address this gap.

The Provision of an EMDR-Based Multicomponent Trauma Treatment With Child Victims of Severe Interpersonal Trauma

This study evaluated a multicomponent phase–based trauma treatment approach for 34 children who were victims of severe interpersonal trauma (e.g., rape, sexual abuse, physical and emotional violence, neglect, abandonment). the children attended a week-long residential psychological recovery camp, which provided resource building experiences, the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing integrative group treatment protocol (emdr-igtp), and one-on-one emdr intervention for the resolution of traumatic memories.

Relationships Between Interpersonal Trauma, Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Other Mental Health Problems in Girls in Compulsory Residential Care

This cross-sectional study examined the relationships (using structural equation modeling) between exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms of complex PTSD, and other mental health problems. The participants were 92 girls recruited from 3 residential treatment facilities. Exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma was directly related to mental health problems and symptoms of PTSD mediated the relationship between exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma and mental health problems.

Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults

Little is known about the possible predictors of treatment outcome in early chronically sexually abused adults. The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first-phase trauma inpatient treatment as well as after a period of 1 year the patients returned to their usual lives.

Empirical Support for the Definition of a Complex Trauma Event in Children and Adolescents

Complex trauma events have been defined as chronic, interpersonal traumas that begin early in life (Cook, Blaustein, Spinazzola, & van der Kolk, 2003). The complex trauma definition has been examined in adults, as indicated by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) field trial, however, this research was lacking in child populations. The symptom presentations of complexly traumatized children were contrasted with those exposed to other, less severe trauma ecologies that met 1 or 2 features of the complex trauma definition.

Evidence for proposed ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD: a latent profile analysis

The WHO International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11), has proposed two related diagnoses, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD within the spectrum of trauma and stress-related disorders. To use latent profile analysis (LPA) to determine whether there are classes of individuals that are distinguishable according to the PTSD and complex PTSD symptom profiles and to identify potential differences in the type of stressor and severity of impairment associated with each profile.

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